Six years of work and creativity at their summer cottage
Six years ago, our acquaintances bought a plot in the Vyborgsky district, near the town of Svetogorsk, and persuaded us to go and see the neighboring one. We really liked the nature there, there is a river and many lakes nearby. And now we are neighbors in the country.
The trees are singing, the waters are shining,
The air is dissolved by love
And the world, the blossoming world of nature,
Intoxicated with an excess of life.
But the acquired plot itself was in an ugly state, there is enough work there even now. We have 16 acres of land, besides, the soil is loamy.
Any person who has received land for a summer cottage is probably impatient to immediately start doing something. With great enthusiasm, we took up the cleaning of the site, began to build beds, erected a large glass greenhouse and a greenhouse under the film, as well as a house with a small veranda. A bathhouse was built below, and a room was made upstairs. We planted bushes of currants, gooseberries, pears, viburnum bushes, yoshta, Kuril tea, jasmine, elderberry and other plants. And we inherited apple trees from the old owners.
We plant many different crops: beets, carrots, peppers, tomatoes, cucumbers, pumpkin, zucchini, potatoes, onions, garlic (before winter). Therefore, we have enough supplies for the winter. Probably every gardener plants these crops, but I want to try something new every year. We are interested in amateur gardeners who are testing new varieties and sharing their seeds. By correspondence, we were sent a lot of seeds of different crops from the Moscow region, from Novosibirsk, Tomsk, Lipetsk, from the Republic of Mordovia ... It is very interesting to grow a new crop from a seed.
Last season, cucumbers made us happy with a record harvest. We collected them in buckets. Everyone probably remembers that May and June were cold last year, but this did not stop us from sowing cucumbers for the May holidays.
In fact, we begin to take care of the future harvest in the fall, when the present harvest is being harvested. From the varieties we like, we get the seeds ourselves, and choose them from the front of the fruit (2/3 of the length from the "nose"), the back is rejected, from the seeds located here, bitter and weak cucumbers can grow. During the growth period of zelents, we choose the specimens we like, mark them with a red cloth and leave them to ripen on the plant. It is from them that after that we get the seeds.
Add sand, humus, leaves to the beds in the fall. We bring fallen spruce or pine needles from the forest. Our beds are raised, and the soil is inside a wooden frame. In the spring we dig up the soil, lay hay, moss. The first time we heat the bath and spill the beds with boiling water with potassium permanganate and copper sulfate. Add urea, dolomite flour. The ends are completely covered with a film, you can not remove them for the winter, and we close the sides in the spring. After processing the beds with boiling water, we cover the ground inside with a film, and from above it is already stretched too. So the earth warms up faster. Then the preheated seeds, processed in a solution of potassium permanganate and hatched, are planted in the holes. Additionally, we install plastic bottles cut from both sides, the seed is inside them.
We also plant seeds in the greenhouse immediately in separate cups for safety reasons, so that later on as little damage to the root system as possible. In our northern climate, this will not hurt. When the cucumbers grow up, if weather conditions permit, we remove the plastic cups and open the south side more (we twist the film onto a block). Our cucumbers grow by themselves, we do not tie them up. Our grandmother used to plant this way. Moisture evaporates less, and with their leaves they cover the root system from the hot sun, and it is more interesting to look for them in the thick of leaves. Last year, we opened both sides of the garden, and the yield was bigger. But we do not always do this, it depends on the weather.
It is also convenient to grow cucumbers on a grid, they are well ventilated. And the ground can be covered with hay or moss.
We planted many different varieties and hybrids, but we made sure that it was better to collect our seeds. Last year we tested the seeds of the selection of Pavel Yakovlevich Saraev. Back in 1937 gudo, he began work on the selection of cucumber and tomato, aimed at increasing cold resistance, drought resistance, tolerance to major diseases, as well as improving taste.
His varieties Krepysh and Uchitelsky were less liked, but Soldiersky and Kholod-25 turned out to be more productive in our conditions.
With cucumber (a green cucumber, and a ripe one - like a melon) so far we have not succeeded, but we do not lose hope.
But we really liked the lemon-cucumber, interesting fruits in shape (like lemons) and taste. And this plant is unpretentious.
The Apomixis Konyaevs variety was grown (origin without fertilization). This variety is of the female type of flowering, which means that there will be fewer barren flowers. The fruit is a long, dark green cucumber with thorns.
We salt, pickle, make salads. For example, we really like pickled cucumbers: Here's how we cook them:
At the bottom of the jar we put garlic, lovage (leaves), dill, currant leaves, black and fragrant pepper, cloves.
The composition of the marinade (per 1 liter of water): 50 g of granulated sugar (2 tablespoons); 50 g of salt (1.5 tablespoons); 2 bay leaves, 5 pcs. carnations, 3 pcs. pepper (peas), pour in 2 tbsp. tablespoons of vinegar.
A novelty of the last season was the kavbuz. This is a hybrid of pumpkin and watermelon, bred in Kiev at the Institute of Molecular Biology and Genetics.
Kavbuz occupies one of the first places among plant sources of carotene, the presence of which provides an antitumor effect, is used to prevent atherosclerosis, and is useful to everyone who suffers from diseases of the liver, kidneys, cardiovascular and nervous systems. The pulp is orange in color, very sweet, the fruits are large.
Grow it like a pumpkin. We plant pumpkins every season in the same beds as cucumbers, or on compost heaps. In early May, at the dacha, so as not to transport the seedlings, we soak the seeds and sow the seeds that have hatched in cups filled with fertile soil. As soon as the shoots appear and even the first real leaf, we plant the seedlings from the greenhouse under the film. In such conditions, the plants will survive the spring frosts, and with steady heat they grow and twine in rows. Female flowers require additional pollination. The most important thing is to keep the distance between the plantings of pumpkin, squash and squash.
Add fresh pumpkin to salads, fry in slices, make pancakes. It turns out very tasty puree from pumpkin and potatoes in equal parts.
We cannot do without "experiments in the garden" with tomatoes. Perhaps no other vegetable crop (after potatoes) is as popular as tomato. And this is understandable. They are tasty, rich in vitamins, perfectly tolerate culinary processing, turning into a great variety of dishes, are well ripened, which means they can be removed green.
This culture requires the constant attention of the gardener. All season - either watering, then weeding, then loosening, then hilling, then pinching, then installing supports, etc.
We grow tomato seedlings at home. In advance, in the fall, we harvest the land, take it from the forest and bring it home. We store it on the balcony. We mix this land with coconut substrate, peat, dolomite flour. We add AVA fertilizer to the cups, and fertilize Kemira Lux with fertilizer. We sow tomatoes, from February to mid-March, illuminate them with lamps. Before sowing, the seeds are kept in a solution of potassium permanganate, and after swelling in a nutrient medium, we harden them in the refrigerator for 2-3 days. When sowing, we use seeds with high germination energy. We plant plants in May-June, depending on the weather, every year in a different way. Our tomatoes grow in a glass greenhouse and under a film.
Before planting, we also pour boiling water over the ridges, add dolomite flour, urea. We plant plants in a checkerboard pattern. We make the holes deep, we plant tomatoes in them just below the level that was in the glass, we compact the ground around. We put the middle of the plastic bottle on the plant before or after planting, insert the edges into the ground, and cover the tomato stem, which is in the cup, with earth or humus. In this cup, additional roots are formed on the plant. We tie up the tomatoes from the ground to the top of the greenhouse.
We tried to squeeze many different varieties: both short and tall. And every season we select the more productive ones.
Last season, the Graceful variety turned out to be fruitful, Red Alert was also tried - very high, the fruits were removed green. I also liked the varieties of P.Ya. Sarajeva: 0-33, CX-4 - undersized, many fruits, amazing taste and smell.
The varieties were planted Buyan, Cardinal, Oxheart, King of Giants, Miracle of the market, Lionheart, Sloth, hybrid Kaspar F and others. This season we will try new varieties of Sarajevo selection.
In the spring, while the tomato and cucumber plants are small, we sow radishes and lettuce in rows between them. While the main plants are growing up, the radishes are already ripe, they have enough heat and moisture, and they ripen faster.
A gimmick of the season we had a black nightshade. All parts of this plant, except for ripe berries, are poisonous!
Ripe berries are eaten fresh, they make infusions. Berries have a beneficial effect on vision, have a laxative, antiseptic effect. Leaves - wound healing, anti-inflammatory action. This plant requires caution when applied. Sow nightshade and plant seedlings in the ground at the same time as tomatoes. This plant is tall, dotted with black berries.
Nightshade grew up in our greenhouse. It was interesting to try a curiosity. We made an infusion from the berries.
We also tried to grow a tomato relative, Red Eggplant. In appearance, it resembles a tomato, very tasty. True, few fruits grew, but the first of them we left for seeds, and the rest were used in cooking. We use the collected seeds this season, maybe we will get a bigger harvest.
Last spring we received new varieties of seed potatoes from Mordovia. We ordered them one tuber at a time, for divorce. Each variety has shown itself in a different way. We left the grown tubers with a neighbor in the cellar, so this season we will definitely continue testing them.
And the varieties are: Ruste (Ireland) - very early (small tubers have grown); Fairy tale (early maturation) - I liked it very much; Early yellow (yellow flesh) - three large tubers have grown; Asterix (early ripening, red skin) - small tubers; Linzer Bleu (Germany) - flesh like red beet, very unusual. Four small tubers have grown.
Shaman (blue-eyed) - smooth, beautiful tubers; Duckling, Ramsay, Daryonka - early varieties. Bred in the Penza Research Institute of Agriculture. We liked it very much.
We plant potatoes every year, about two hundred square meters, the harvest was good (42 buckets). Therefore, I want to try something new in our loamy land.
The "sweet" harvest last season was small. We collected some currants, strawberries, gooseberries, there were also few apples.
But on the other hand, there were so many mushrooms in the area that many different very tasty preparations could be made. For example, caviar from mushrooms and tomatoes.
Turn 1 kg of boiled mushrooms and 1 kg of tomatoes through a meat grinder, add a glass of sunflower oil, salt to taste. Put the caviar on the fire for 15-20 minutes, and then transfer to sterilized jars and roll up.
And here is another one original recipe... By the end of the season, each gardener has 3 kg of tomatoes, 1 kg of apples and onions. Cut sweet tomatoes and apples into 2-4 pieces. Chop the onion finely. Pour everything into a saucepan and cook over low heat for 30-40 minutes, until the apples and onions soften. Then rub the mixture through a sieve, discard the waste.
The sauce is almost ready, put it on fire and evaporate the water from the vegetables to thicken it. Season with salt and sugar to taste. Dip 2 bay leaves, 10 peppercorns, a little cinnamon and cloves into a saucepan. Pour in vinegar, first half a tablespoon, and then add more to taste. When the sauce thickens, remove from heat. Pour into jars and roll up.
And what are delicious canned tomatoes! For 1 liter. water: salt - 1 tablespoon; vinegar - 2 tbsp. spoons; granulated sugar - 1 tbsp. the spoon; bay leaf - 1 pc .; peppercorns - 5-7 pcs.; cloves - 2 pcs.; dill - 2 branches; currant leaf - 5 pcs.; onions (rings on top) - 1 pc .; garlic - 1 small head.
I think every gardener has many delicious recipes. All of us have one thing in common - the result of our creativity, the fact that we managed to find an exciting activity for ourselves - cooking tasty, healthy, hearty homemade food from vegetables and fruits grown by our own hands.
N. Gavrilova, gardener, winner of the competition
Fig. V. Glotova
How to master a summer cottage - garden and vegetable garden
The horticultural boom in our country continues to gain momentum. With the first fine spring days, millions of townspeople rush to their garden plots. The distance of 70-100 km from the city is no longer considered great. Every Friday evening, electric trains are packed full of people with backpacks, bags, carts. There are only a few tourists among them, and the rest are all summer residents. Sometimes you have to stand on one leg in a crowded carriage for two hours. All the way, such a summer resident curses the day and hour when he took the plot, and a week later he again rushes from work to the station. The hunt is worse than bondage!
Perhaps a lot. First of all, this is a reasonable leisure, unity with nature, from which we have become so detached, new knowledge about the earth and new interests. Gardening and horticulture are so exciting that there is simply no minute left for an empty pastime, but otherwise they turn their whole life upside down. A garden, a vegetable garden and especially pets captivate not only adults, but also introduce children to work. Your piece of land fosters a feeling of the same respect for the whole of nature, and this is now especially important for us.
Plot - this is also a great help for the family. From six acres, you can collect so many vegetables, fruits, berries, which is enough for a year for 5-6 people - there would be a place to store the harvest. And besides, there is an opportunity to provide oneself with livestock products.
And what about organic food? All expenses are justified by your nitrate-free cucumber, radish or dill, freshly picked strawberries.
Plot Is health. Communication with nature - whether it is observing the life of plants and insects or simply digging up the earth, as well as peace and quiet, can relieve tension, calm the nervous system, and restore mental balance. Working in clean air has not hurt anyone yet. On the contrary, people worn out by chronic diseases, far from clinics, often get rid of their ailments forever without any medication. And when to get sick? The snow has not melted yet, but start work in the greenhouse, then "sowing", the time has come to water, and there, you see, the weeds have filled everything, then it's time to cut, tie up and weed again. I didn't have time to turn around - the first harvest of berries ripened, followed by cucumbers. And so on to white flies. Can you even allow yourself a simple runny nose?
But harvests will not appear immediately. Usually, for garden plots there are such inconveniences that you cannot even call them land. It seems that life is not enough to master this swamp or ravine, and in 10-15 years, you see, in their place is a real garden. Most of the townspeople, having received possession of the land, remain for a long time in complete confusion - where to start. Some do not know the basic basics: how and what to sow, how to care for plants, how to make the soil fertile, and the site itself convenient and beautiful. This album is intended for them, who have completely lost touch with wildlife.
Before us is 600 square meters of land, on which, except for wild vegetation, there is nothing. We have to grow a garden here.It will be the way we want it to be. But in any case, it will be a beautiful garden, because an artist lives in each of us.
Most gardeners start with building a house, but it is much more important to build a utility block first, that is, a shed where you can store materials, tools, shelter from the weather, and, may aesthetes forgive this prose, a toilet. It is best to combine these structures. At the present time, when any plank is obtained with great difficulty, it makes no sense to make these buildings temporary. Therefore, you immediately need to decide where to place what on the site. From now on, we will have to become planning architects.
Take a sheet of graph paper or a regular notebook in a cage and eat a plan - a drawing of a plot in a scale of 1: 100 (each centimeter in the drawing corresponds to 1 m in kind). You can choose another scale, but this one is most convenient for drawing up a project.
You know the size of your site, but for accuracy it is still worth measuring all sides with a tape measure. We will draw the contours of the site on our plan, designate the cardinal points and determine the locations of the main buildings. As a rule, horticultural associations have master plans for the development of the entire allotted area, on which roads, houses, large outbuildings are identified, or at least red lines (building lines). In this case, any initiative in the planning is unacceptable because the project takes into account technical, fire safety and sanitary standards. If such a general plan does not exist, then each of the owners of the plots must adhere to the following norms (see vol. 1): the distance between the house and the border of the plot must be at least 3 m, between neighboring houses - at least 6 m, from the road to at home - not less than 4.5 m, from the house to outbuildings and a toilet - at least 7 m of premises for animals can be located at a distance of at least 4 m from the border of the planting and buildings should not shade the neighboring area.
So, we will draw the outline of the house on our plan, and then we will deal with the placement of other buildings. It is advisable to locate a shed, shower, toilet, room for pets and poultry, a compost area in one so-called economic zone on the side of the site opposite from the house. A greenhouse can also be placed here. The ideal option is to combine the economic zones of two or even four adjacent plots. As a result of such a rational planning, significant savings in usable area are obtained, and in addition, conflicts between land owners are excluded.
Imagine the opposite situation. You put a toilet in a secluded corner, away from the house, and a neighbor in the same place decided to make a recreation area or a playground. Here is a reason for a conflict that will poison your rest forever, and indeed existence on the site. At the same time, peace can be saved if you discuss your plans with your neighbors in advance.
The next stage of planning is the definition of a recreation area, a playground, a garden and a vegetable garden. For some, a garden and a vegetable garden will be of paramount importance, but for someone a comfortable place for a quiet rest, a sports or playground is more important. In accordance with our preferences, we will determine the priority in choosing a zone. Its contour can be simply marked with a dotted line, and later, if necessary, make a detailed development.
If there are wild trees or shrubs on the site, do not rush to uproot them. A small, well-shaped birch, mountain ash, spruce, hazel bush, viburnum, euonymus will serve as the basis for a recreation area, create an element of surprise, attracting attention to the center. You can also use the unevenness of the relief. In the lowering there will be a natural reservoir, and on the hill there will be a rocky garden or alpine slide.
The recreation area will be appropriate both in the front garden, if it is isolated from the street with a high hedge, and from the northern, poorly lit, side of the house.
Many gardeners build a summer kitchen on the site, especially in the southern regions. Well, in some cases it is more convenient and more expedient than the kitchen in the house. If you are going to follow this example, then take this advice. The summer kitchen not only cooks, but also usually dines. And on a hot summer day, dining outdoors under the shade of the trees is much more pleasant. It makes sense to build a kitchen so that it is combined with a seating area. A small outdoor terrace or paved area allows you to take your dining table out to the air. A place for a quiet rest can be equipped in a very interesting way. A gazebo, a green room with garden furniture, a decorative pond with a bench, a flower bed or a bed with your favorite flowers, and finally, a lawn surrounded by bushes, where you can sunbathe without fear of prying eyes, are appropriate here.
For a playground, it is better to choose a sunny place or slightly shaded, for example, a tree with an openwork crown. In the future, there will be either a swing with a sandpit, or facilities for sports, a meadow with a lawn for outdoor games, a swimming pool.
Now we will determine the place for the garden and vegetable garden. On our plan, the garden is located on the north side, and the vegetable garden is almost in the center of the site. To some extent, it will be protected from the influence of northern winds by a utility unit and a greenhouse, and the plants will receive enough sunlight. If necessary, part of the garden, for example, perennial green crops or a strawberry plantation, can be transferred to a recreation area.
When planting small apple trees, pears, plums, it is difficult to imagine that they will once turn into large spreading trees. And often the plantings turn out to be thickened, which is why the yield decreases, care becomes more difficult, and a hand does not rise to cut down the extra tree. Over time, such a garden turns into a real jungle. To prevent this from happening, try to calculate exactly how many trees and shrubs will fit in the area of the garden allotted according to the plan. The distance between apple trees and pears from trunk to trunk on ordinary rootstocks is recommended from 3 to 5 m, between cherries and plums - 2.5-3 m, between currant bushes - 1-1.5 m in a row and 1.5 m between rows ... And so that in the future trees and shrubs, both fruit and ornamental, do not shade the neighboring area, the distance from the planting site to the border of the site is taken for trees from 2 (medium-sized) to 3 m (tall) and for shrubs from 1 to 1.5 m. In the early years, you can plant strawberries or vegetables between the trees.
And one more point, not provided for by any standards. Some plants, such as sea buckthorn, blackthorn, cherry, have an extremely high shoot-forming ability. Their roots often spread over a distance of 15 m from the mother plant and give many shoots. If you plant sea buckthorn 1.5 m from the fence, then it is possible that in 3-4 years your neighbor will declare war on you, tired of tearing root offspring from his beds. So the standards are the standards, but it is still better to plant such plants in the center of the site - good relations with neighbors are more important.
Finally, it remains to determine the entrance to the site and the entrance (parking lot) of a car with a place for temporary storage of goods (building materials, peat, fertilizers, etc.). There will also be a so-called entrance area. Since this part of the site is clearly visible from the road, then its design needs to be thought out especially carefully. As a rule, flower beds and a lawn are placed in the entrance area. "
Here we are, in general terms, and planned our site. These examples reflect only the basic principles of zoning, which does not exclude the possibility of independent decisions. There may be several of them, but in order to choose the best option for yourself, try cutting stencils from thick paper to the size (to scale) of future buildings, plantings and move them around the plan until you find the desired solution.
The sequence of stages in the development of a summer cottage from scratch
So, a rough plan has been drawn up, how should you approach its implementation? Where should the development of an uninhabited suburban area begin? Let's try to briefly describe the sequence of actions for the development of the backyard territory.
In general terms, it will look like this:
- Erection of a fence and construction of a house - if these measures have to be postponed for financial reasons, then you can limit yourself to just arranging a fence and designating a place for the construction of a residential building. Here, one should take into account the availability of space for digging a trench for the foundation and the availability of free space where building materials will be placed.
- Main track alignment designator.
- Designation of an area for arranging a vegetable garden (at this stage, you can already start planting perennial vegetable crops, as well as berries - strawberries, wild strawberries, etc.)
- Designation of the area for the arrangement of the garden and its embedding.
- Planting ornamental plants - they are always planted last.
What to do if the acquired plot has already been developed earlier?
If you happen to become the happy owner of a summer residence that has already been mastered by the previous owners, then try to transform it in your “own way” to act judiciously and systematically.
To begin with, conduct a thorough inventory of the existing plantings, assess the condition and location of the buildings already erected, and then proceed to the development of a project for the reconstruction of the backyard territory. Do not rush to recklessly expose the remaining fruit and fruit trees from the previous owners: it is better to make a decision to cut down after assessing the quality of their fruits and the degree of productivity in general (however, do not forget that even the highest-yielding trees have their own phase of "rest" when they are not bear fruit).
Instead of cut down old, diseased and infertile trees, young seedlings are planted so that they are not shaded by the crowns of already adult specimens, which it was decided to leave. If the plans of the new owner of the summer house include the construction of a house, then it is necessary to place the building and approach its construction so that in the process of excavation and construction work, the risk of damage to the abandoned horticultural crops is minimal.
Berry bushes that do not grow in the most convenient place (according to the new owners of the dacha), it is better not to cut down or change them to new, young seedlings, but to transplant them into more suitable corners of the garden. So, you do not have to wait several years for young plants to enter the fruiting phase.
Remember that the transformation of an already developed suburban area should be approached from a reasonable point of view. It is impractical and unreasonable to destroy and cut down everything that remains of the previous owners of the dacha, because it will take not only money, but also a lot of time to reclaim the existing area. In addition, new owners will have to wait a long time before receiving the first harvest from young seedlings - usually the waiting period is calculated at least several years.
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Planning is the most important step
Having decided on the general steps, you need to draw up a detailed plan for decorating the landscape of the territory and think in what style the site will be equipped - in modern, classic, rustic, etc.
It is worth focusing on the design of the country house so that the landscape of the site and the interior of the house are in harmony, and not represent something contrasting. This is the only way to achieve harmony in the design of the cottage.
In order to save money, you can do a lot in the design of the site with your own hands. This applies to both planning and the direct implementation of work.
Making a plot of a summer residence with your own hands, photo.
What can you do in decorating a summer residence yourself:
- To develop options for the design of the site (3-5 options), in order to then choose the most suitable one. Do not hesitate to examine in detail the dachas of your friends and neighbors in order to understand what is closer to you. Perhaps seasoned gardeners will share their ideas with you.
- Thoroughly think over a plan for dividing the landscape area into zones. Zoning is an important point in the arrangement of a suburban area. It is very important to do it correctly, allocating enough space for gardening, beds, resting places, paths and flower beds. The location of these zones, as mentioned earlier, is also extremely important. For example, if we set aside 90% of the plot for the cultivation of gardens, then there will be no room for building a house and creating places for recreation.
- To design the landscape design of the site using special computer programs, significantly saving on the services of specialists. But for this you need to have minimal skills in working with a computer and electronic programs. If you are not strong in this, perhaps your friends, who have already passed the planning stage of the design of a summer cottage, will be able to share their best practices with you.
- Purchase all the necessary materials, furniture and decor items. Often for this service, dacha owners turn to professional designers so that they can share their experience with them and help them choose everything they need. However, all this can be done by yourself by analyzing the prices in online stores and buying many things at great discounts.
- Collect furniture, lay out flower beds, install gazebos for rest, break beds, place decorative elements of a suburban mini-mansion around the territory - you can do all this to decorate a garden plot with your own hands. The main thing is not to be lazy and use your ingenuity, not forgetting that your friends who have experience in arranging summer cottages can certainly share invaluable experience with you.
So, if you do all of the above yourself, the arrangement and design of the suburban area will seem to you a very simple matter. Stock up on patience and hard work, and you will save a lot of nerves and money. Arrangement of the suburban area: photo.
1. Adapt to the terrain.
It is good if it is even. Then there will be practically no restrictions on the location of the house and outbuildings. But otherwise, you will have to adjust to the nuances of the relief.
Sometimes, in the question of how to plan a summer cottage, leveling the surface helps. Then somewhere you can cut off part of the soil, pouring it into the lowlands. But also the differences in soil levels can be used for planning. Then the slopes are strengthened by the construction of terraces or stairs, the allocation of zones for garden trees.